Be On Lookout For Anthrax
Anthrax cases continue to be identified in southwestern North Dakota.
September 6, 2023 | View PDF
"This is a reminder to our cattle producers that the threat of anthrax is present," says Gerald Stokka, North Dakota State University Extension veterinarian. "It appears that during times of high rainfall or very dry conditions, the spores are uncovered and cattle are at risk of infection."
Anthrax is a disease in cattle caused by bacteria known as Bacillus anthracis. It has a special survival mechanism called spore formation. This characteristic allows the bacteria to produce very hardy spores with a high survival rate. The spores can survive for years under the right conditions. When these spores come into contact with susceptible cattle, they can "hatch" and infect cattle, resulting in disease and death.
Often the only initial sign of anthrax infection is finding dead cattle. Cattle can die without signs of illness for a number of reasons, including lightning strikes, clostridial infections and toxicities, but anthrax always should be considered, according to Stokka. If anthrax is suspected, do not perform a necropsy. Take a blood sample and submit to the NDSU Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for confirmation.
"If the diagnosis of anthrax is suspected and confirmed by your veterinarian and the NDSU Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, then vaccination needs to be implemented as quickly as possible," he says.
The commercial vaccine available is a live attenuated (nondisease-causing) spore vaccine. The dose is 1 cc administered subcutaneously in the neck region. All adult cattle and calves should receive the vaccine, and treatment with antibiotics should be withheld because it may interfere with the immune response. However, when faced with an outbreak situation, administering an antibiotic and a vaccine concurrently has been effective. Consult your local veterinarian for a recommendation.
"Consider removing all cattle from the pasture where anthrax deaths are suspected because spores present can infect the remaining animals," Stokka advises.
Also, anthrax carries a risk to humans, so take care to not disturb the carcass. The recommended method of disposal is to burn the carcass and soil on which the carcass was found after placing them in a trench dug in the immediate area of the death.
For more information, visit the NDSU Extension publication "Anthrax" at http://www.ndsu.edu/agriculture/extension/publications/anthrax.